Upwelling is defined as a phenomenon in which the dense, nutrient-rich, and cool water that is present in the depth moves towards the surface of the ocean with the help of wind. In this way, the water that is warm and nutrient-depleted on the surface is replaced. This replacement enables, stimulates, and improves the growth and reproduction of phytoplankton that are known to be the prime producers.
The zones and areas that are upwelled can be determined by the concentration of chlorophyll-a and cool sea surface temperatures. Consequently, the upwelling leads to a better and improved production of the fishery. The three mechanisms which bring the deeper water onto the surface are namely wind, Ekman transport, and the Coriolis effect.
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