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Question: Lee is starting a small lawn service.

Lee is starting a small lawn service. On the advice of his accountant, Lee has formed a corporation and made an S corporation election. The accountant has asked Lee to consider electing a fiscal year ending on the last day in February. The accountant pointed out that Lee’s business is likely to slow down in the winter. Also, the accountant indicated that the February year end would permit the accountant to do Lee’s accounting work after the busy season in accounting is over. What tax issues should Lee consider?

> Kay owns equipment used in her business and exchanges the equipment for other like-kind equipment and marketable securities. a. Will Kay’s recognized gain ever exceed the realized gain? b. Will Kay’s recognized gain ever exceed the FMV of the marketabl

> Why might a taxpayer want to avoid having an exchange qualify as a like-kind exchange?

> Prior to the Taxpayer Relief Act of 1997, taxpayers could defer a gain on the sale of a principal residence sold before May 7, 1997, if they purchased and occupied a new principal residence within two years before or after the sale and the cost of the ne

> What requirements must be satisfied by an unmarried taxpayer under Sec. 121 to be eligible for the election to exclude a gain up to $250,000 on the sale or exchange of a principal residence?

> The Nelsons purchased a new residence in 1992 for $300,000 from David who owned and used the residence as rental property. When the Nelsons wanted to purchase the property, it was being rented to tenants who had four months remaining on their lease. The

> Steve maintains that the cost of wallpapering his three-bedroom house is a capital expenditure while Martha maintains that the cost of wallpapering her three-bedroom house is an expense. Steve uses his house as his personal residence while Martha’s house

> Does the IRS acquiesce in decisions of U.S. district courts?

> One reason Congress expanded the exclusion of gain on the sale of a principal residence and eliminated the deferral provision was to eliminate the need for many taxpayers to keep records of capital improvements that increase the basis of their residence.

> In what situations may a gain due to an involuntary conversion of real property be deferred if like-kind property is purchased to replace the converted property?

> The functional use test is often used to determine whether the replacement property is similar or related in service or use to the property converted. Explain the functional use test.

> Must property be actually condemned for the conversion of property to be classified as an involuntary conversion? Explain.

> What is the justification for Sec. 1033, which allows a taxpayer to elect to defer a gain resulting from an involuntary conversion? May a taxpayer elect under Sec. 1033 to defer recognition of a loss resulting from an involuntary conversion?

> When must a taxpayer who gives boot recognize a gain or loss?

> Does the receipt of boot in a transaction that otherwise qualifies as a like-kind exchange always cause the exchange to be at least partially taxable?

> Lanny wants to purchase a farm owned by Jane, but Jane does not want to recognize a gain on the transfer of the appreciated property. Explain how a three-party exchange might be used to allow Lanny to obtain the farm without Jane having to recognize a ga

> Burke is anxious to purchase land owned by Kim for use in his trade or business. Kim’s basis for the land is $150,000, and Burke has offered to pay $800,000 if she will sell within the next 10 days. Kim is interested in selling but wants to avoid recogni

> What is personal property of a like class that meets the definition of like-kind?

> Explain whether the following decisions are of the same precedential value: (1) Tax Court regular decisions, (2) Tax Court memo decisions, and (3) decisions under the Small Cases Procedures of the Tax Court.

> When determining whether property qualifies as like-kind property, is the quality or grade of the property considered?

> Demetrius sells word processing equipment used in his business to Edith. He then purchases new word processing equipment from Zip Corporation. a. Do the sale and purchase qualify as a like-kind exchange? b. When may a sale and a subsequent purchase be

> Debbie owns office equipment with a basis of $300,000 and a holding period starting on May 10, 2006. Debbie exchanges the equipment for other office equipment owned by Doug on July 23, 2017. Doug’s equipment has an FMV of $500,000. Both Debbie and Doug u

> Evaluate the following statement: The underlying rationale for the nonrecognition of a gain or loss resulting from a like-kind exchange is that the exchange constitutes a liquidation of the taxpayer’s investment.

> Paden, who is single and has been employed as an accountant for 27 years with Harper, Inc., lost his job due to company downsizing. His last day of employment is July 31, 2017, and Harper provides a $9,000 severance payment. The severance payments are ba

> The Electric Corporation, a publicly held corporation, owns land with a $1,600,000 basis that is being held for investment. The company is considering exchanging the land for two assets owned by the Quail Corporation: land with a FMV of $4,000,000 and ma

> Leon has a substantial portfolio of stocks and bonds as well as cash from some bonds that have recently matured. He has been looking at investing $200,000 in corporate bonds that pay 7% interest. The $14,000 of annual interest would be used to pay his 24

> Linda is selling land she has owned for many years. The land cost $80,000 and will sell for $200,000. The buyer has offered to pay $100,000 down and pay the balance next year plus interest at 8%. Assume that Linda’s after tax rate of return on investment

> Apple Corporation has never been audited before the current year. An audit is now needed from a CPA because the company is expanding rapidly and plans to issue stock to the public in a secondary offering. A CPA firm has been doing preliminary evaluations

> Texas Corporation disassembles old automobiles for the purpose of reselling their components (i.e., different types of metals, plastics, rubber, and other materials). Texas sells some of the items for scrap, but must pay to dispose of environmentally haz

> May a taxpayer appeal a case litigated under the Small Cases Procedure of the Tax Court?

> Eagle and Hill Corporations discuss the terms of a land sale, and they agree to a price of $230,000. Eagle wants to use the installment sale method, but is not sure Hill is a reliable borrower. As a result, Eagle requires Hill to place the entire purchas

> Jane loans $80,000 to John, her son, to permit him to purchase a principal residence. The loan principal is secured by John’s residence, but the agreement does not specify any interest. The applicable federal rate for the year is 8%. John’s net investmen

> Lance Corporation’s management has asked whether they may change their inventory valuation method to LIFO. They now report their inventory using FIFO. If they can change, how would they go about it? How is the related adjustment handled?

> BCD Partnership has, for many years, had a March 31 year-end. The partnership’s net income for the fiscal year ended March 31, 2018 is $400,000. Because of its fiscal year, BCD has $100,000 on deposit with the IRS from 2017. a. How much must BCD add to

> Dana manages real estate and is a cash method taxpayer. She changes to the accrual method in 2018. Dana’s business income for 2018 is $30,000 computed on the accrual method. Her books show the following: a. What adjustment is necessary

> On January 30, 2017, Amy sells land to Bob for a stated price of $200,000. The full $200,000 is payable on January 30, 2019. No interest is stated. Amy, a cash-method taxpayer, purchased the land in 2012 for $130,000. a. How much interest income must be

> Joe sells land with a $60,000 adjusted basis for $42,000. He incurs selling expenses of $2,000. The land is subject to a $10,000 mortgage. The buyer, who assumes the mortgage, pays $8,000 down and agrees to pay Joe $8,000 per year for three years plus in

> First Company sold the following assets during the year. Indicate whether First Company can use the installment method to report each transaction. If not, how is the transaction reported? Assume First Company is an accrual basis taxpayer. a. First Compa

> Prime Corporation begins operations in late 2017. Prime decides to use the single-pool LIFO method. Year-end inventories under FIFO are as follows: 2017……………………….$110,000 2018………………………..134,000 2019………………………..125,000 The price index for 2017 is 130%; f

> In light of the economic performance requirement, how much is deductible by the following accrual-basis corporate taxpayers this year? a. Camp Corporation sells products with a one-year warranty. Camp estimates that the warranty costs on products sold d

> a. In which courts may litigation dealing with tax matters begin? b. Discuss the factors that might be considered in deciding where to litigate. c. Describe the appeals process in tax litigation.

> For each of the following cases, indicate whether the taxpayer has selected an allowable tax year in an initial year. If the year selected is not acceptable, indicate what an acceptable year would be. a. A corporation selects a January 15 year-end. b.

> King Construction Company is engaged in a road construction contract to build a highway over a three-year period. King will receive $11,200,000 for building five miles of highway. King estimates that it will incur $10,000,000 of costs before the contract

> Zap Company manufactures computer hard drives. The cost of hard drives has been declining for years. Sales totaled $4,000,000 last year. Zap’s ending inventory was valued at $300,000 under FIFO. The company’s new president is trying to cut taxes and asks

> Which of the following costs must be included in inventory by a manufacturing company? a. Raw materials b. Advertising c. Payroll taxes for factory employees d. Research and experimental costs e. Factory insurance f. Repairs to factory equipment g.

> How much of the following expenses are currently deductible by a cash basis taxpayer? a. Medical prescriptions costing $20 paid by credit card (medical expenses already exceed the 10% of AGI floor). b. Prepaid interest (not related to points) of $200 o

> Lavanya, a single taxpayer, is a practicing accountant. She obtains permission to change her tax year from the calendar year to a year ending July 31. Her practice income for the seven months ending July 31 is $40,000. In addition, Lavanya has $3,000 of

> Each of the following cases involves a taxable year of less than 12 months. In which situations is annualization required? a. A new corporation formed in September elects a calendar year. b. A calendar-year individual dies on June 15. c. Jean, who has

> In which of the following instances is a taxpayer permitted to change accounting periods without IRS approval? a. A calendar-year taxpayer who wishes to change to a year that ends on the last Friday in December. b. ABC Partnership has filed its tax ret

> In December, Dan sells unlisted stock with a cost of $14,000 for $20,000. Dan collects $5,000 down and is scheduled to receive $5,000 per year for three years plus interest at a rate acceptable to the IRS. a. How much gain must Dan recognize in the year

> a. Discuss the authoritative weight of revenue rulings. b. As a practical matter, what consequences are likely to ensue if a taxpayer does not follow a revenue ruling and the IRS audits his or her return?

> John owns a small farm on a lake. A local developer offers John $400,000 cash for his farm. The developer believes John’s farm will be very attractive to home buyers because it is on a lake. After John turns down the initial offer, the developer offers t

> Lana operates a real estate appraisal service business in a small town serving local lenders. After noting that lenders must pay to bring in a surveyor from out of town, she completes a course and obtains a surveyor’s license that enables her to provide

> Judy’s Cars, Inc., sells collectible automobiles to consumers. She employs the specific identification inventory valuation method. Prices are negotiated by Judy and individual customers. Judy accepts trade-ins when she sells an automobile. Judy negotiate

> What treatment is given to an installment sale involving related people?

> a. What conditions must be met in order to use the installment method? b. Why would a taxpayer elect not to use the installment method?

> What transactions are subject to the long-term contract method of reporting?

> a. How are overhead costs treated in determining a manufacturing company’s inventory? b. Do retailers have a similar rule? c. Are these rules the same as for financial accounting? If not, explain.

> What is the significance of the Thor Power Tool Co. decision?

> What conditions must be met if the economic performance test is to be waived for an accrual method taxpayer?

> What constitutes a payment in determining when a cash-basis taxpayer is entitled to deduct an expense?

> Explain the legislative reenactment doctrine.

> Who may use the completed contract method of reporting income from long-term contracts?

> a. When are expenses deductible by a cash method taxpayer? b. Are the rules that determine when interest is deductible by a cash method taxpayer the same as for other expenses? c. Is a cash method taxpayer subject to the same rules for depreciable asse

> a. Does the term method of accounting refer only to overall methods of accounting? Explain. b. Does a taxpayer’s accounting method affect the total amount of income reported over an extended time period? c. How can the use of an accounting method affect

> a. Is it correct to say that businesses with inventories must use the accrual method? b. What other restrictions apply to taxpayers who are choosing an overall tax accounting method? c. Why is the cash method usually preferred to the accrual method?

> Under what circumstances can an individual taxpayer change tax years without IRS approval?

> How could the 52–53-week year prove to be beneficial to taxpayers? Explain.

> What restrictions apply to partnerships selecting a tax year?

> Why is it desirable for a new taxpayer to select an appropriate tax year?

> How does a taxpayer’s tax accounting method affect the amount of tax paid?

> Do accounting rules determine the amount of income to be reported by a taxpayer?

> In 2011, there was a change in the authoritative weight of interpretive versus legislative regulations. Briefly explain what changed and why.

> What is the primary impact of the imputed interest rules on installment sales?

> If a taxpayer changes the method of accounting used for financial reporting purposes, must the taxpayer also change his or her method of accounting for tax purposes?

> Explain the purpose of the four-year method used in computing the tax resulting from a net adjustment due to a change in accounting methods.

> Can the IRS require a taxpayer to change accounting methods?

> What changes in accounting method can be made without IRS approval?

> What impact does the gifting of an installment obligation have on the donor?

> What is the impact of having the entire gain on an installment sale consist of ordinary income from depreciation recapture?

> Is an accrual method taxpayer permitted to deduct estimated expenses? What about prepaid expenses? Explain.

> What is meant by economic performance?

> When is a cash method taxpayer allowed to deduct deposits?

> a. Distinguish between proposed, temporary, and final Treasury Regulations. b. Distinguish between interpretative and legislative Treasury Regulations.

> Explain the difference between closed-fact and open-fact situations.

> What claims do advocates of unions make to argue that unions are good for the economy?

> Are the following workers more likely to experience short-term or long-term unemployment? Explain. a. a construction worker who is laid off because of bad weather b. a manufacturing worker who loses his job at a plant in an isolated area c. a stagecoach-

> According to the theory of efficiency wages, a. firms may find it profitable to pay above- equilibrium wages. b. an excess supply of labor puts downward pressure on wages. c. sectoral shifts are the main source of frictional unemployment. d. right-to-wor

> Describe the efficient markets hypothesis, and give a piece of evidence consistent with this hypothesis.

> When the economy goes into a recession, real GDP ________ and unemployment ________. a. rises, rises b. rises, falls c. falls, rises d. falls, falls

> What are the three categories into which the Bureau of Labor Statistics divides everyone? How does the BLS compute the labor force, the unemployment rate, and the labor-force participation rate?

> Which kind of stock would you expect to pay the higher average return: stock in an industry that is very sensitive to economic conditions (such as an automaker) or stock in an industry that is relatively insensitive to economic conditions (such as a wate

> According to the efficient markets hypothesis, a. changes in stock prices are impossible to predict from public information. b. excessive diversification can reduce an investor’s expected portfolio returns. c. the stock market moves based on the changin

> What is a government budget deficit? How does it affect interest rates, investment, and economic growth?

> Suppose that Intel is considering building a new chip- making factory. a. Assuming that Intel needs to borrow money in the bond market, why would an increase in interest rates affect Intel’s decision about whether to build the factory? b. If Intel has en

> A closed economy has income of $1,000, government spending of $200, taxes of $150, and investment of $250. What is private saving? a. $100 b. $200 c. $300 d. $400

> If the business community becomes more optimistic about the profitability of capital, the ________ curve for loan able funds would shift, driving the equilibrium interest rate ________. a. supply, up b. supply, down c. demand, up d. demand, down

> Explain how reducing a government budget deficit makes future generations better off. What fiscal policy might improve the lives of future generations better off. What fiscal policy might improve the lives of future generations better off. What fiscal po

> Why are some economists against a target of zero inflation?

> Why are the benefits of reducing inflation permanent and the costs temporary? Why are the costs of increasing inflation permanent and the benefits temporary? Use Phillips-curve diagrams in your answer.

> Throughout U.S. history, what has been the most common cause of substantial increases in government debt? a. recessions b. wars c. financial crises d. tax cuts


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