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Question: What is the difference between a perpetual

What is the difference between a perpetual inventory and a physical inventory? If a company maintains a perpetual inventory, should its physical inventory at any date be equal to the amount indicated by the perpetual inventory records? Why?

> How should a debt callable by the creditor be reported in the debtor’s financial statements?

> Sheryl Crow Equipment Company sold 500 Rollomatics during 2014 at $6,000 each. During 2014, Crow spent $20,000 servicing the 2-year warranties that accompany the Rollomatic. All applicable transactions are on a cash basis. Instructions (a) Prepare 20

> Soundgarden Company sold 200 color laser copiers in 2014 for $4,000 apiece, together with a one-year warranty. Maintenance on each copier during the warranty period averages $330. Instructions (a) Prepare entries to record the sale of the copiers and

> Green Day Hardware Company’s payroll for November 2014 is summarized below. At this point in the year, some employees have already received wages in excess of those to which payroll taxes apply. Assume that the state unemployment tax is 2.5%

> The payroll of YellowCard Company for September 2013 is as follows. Total payroll was $480,000, of which $110,000 is exempt from Social Security tax because it represented amounts paid in excess of $113,700 to certain employees. The amount paid to empl

> During the month of June, Rowling Boutique had cash sales of $233,200 and credit sales of $153,700, both of which include the 6% sales tax that must be remitted to the state by July 15. Instructions Prepare the adjusting entry that should be recorded

> Define (a) a contingency and (b) a contingent liability.

> Assume the facts in E13-5 except that Matt Broderick Company has chosen not to accrue paid sick leave until used, and has chosen to accrue vacation time at expected future rates of pay without discounting. The company used the following projected rates

> Matt Broderick Company began operations on January 2, 2013. It employs 9 individuals who work 8-hour days and are paid hourly. Each employee earns 10 paid vacation days and 6 paid sick days annually. Vacation days may be taken after January 15 of the y

> On December 31, 2014, Kate Holmes Company has $7,000,000 of short-term debt in the form of notes payable to Gotham State Bank due in 2015. On January 28, 2015, Holmes enters into a refinancing agreement with Gotham that will permit it to borrow up to 6

> On December 31, 2014, Hattie McDaniel Company had $1,200,000 of short-term debt in the form of notes payable due February 2, 2015. On January 21, 2015, the company issued 25,000 shares of its common stock for $38 per share, receiving $950,000 proceeds

> The following are selected 2014 transactions of Sean Astin Corporation. Sept. 1 Purchased inventory from Encino Company on account for $50,000. Astin records purchases gross and uses a periodic inventory system. Oct. 1 Issued a $50,000, 12-month, 8%

> How would each of the following items be reported on the balance sheet? (a) Accrued vacation pay. (b) Estimated taxes payable. (c) Service warranties on appliance sales. (d) Bank overdraft. (e) Employee payroll deductions unremitted. Debts to be p

> Wynn Company offers a set of building blocks to customers who send in 3 UPC codes from Wynn cereal, along with 50¢. The block sets cost Wynn $1.10 each to purchase and 60¢ each to mail to customers. During 2014, Wynn sold 1,200,000 boxes of cereal. The c

> Leppard Corporation sells DVD players. The corporation also offers its customers a 2-year warranty contract. During 2014, Leppard sold 20,000 warranty contracts at $99 each. The corporation spent $180,000 servicing warranties during 2014, and it estimate

> Streep Factory provides a 2-year warranty with one of its products which was first sold in 2014. In that year, Streep spent $70,000 servicing warranty claims. At year-end, Streep estimates that an additional $400,000 will be spent in the future to servic

> Faith Battle operates a health food store, and she has been the only employee. Her business is growing, and she is considering hiring some additional staff to help her in the store. Explain to her the various payroll deductions that she will have to acco

> Calaf’s Drillers erects and places into service an off-shore oil platform on January 1, 2015, at a cost of $10,000,000. Calaf is legally required to dismantle and remove the platform at the end of its useful life in 10 years. Calaf estimates it will cost

> Scorcese Inc. is involved in a lawsuit at December 31, 2014. (a) Prepare the December 31 entry assuming it is probable that Scorcese will be liable for $900,000 as a result of this suit. (b) Prepare the December 31 entry, if any, assuming it is not p

> Mayaguez Corporation provides its officers with bonuses based on net income. For 2014, the bonuses total $350,000 and are paid on February 15, 2015. Prepare Mayaguez’s December 31, 2014, adjusting entry and the February 15, 2015, entry.

> Kasten Inc. provides paid vacations to its employees. At December 31, 2014, 30 employees have each earned 2 weeks of vacation time. The employees’ average salary is $500 per week. Prepare Kasten’s December 31, 2014, adjusting entry.

> Lexington Corporation’s weekly payroll of $24,000 included FICA taxes withheld of $1,836, federal taxes withheld of $2,990, state taxes withheld of $920, and insurance premiums withheld of $250. Prepare the journal entry to record Lexington’s payroll.

> Dillons Corporation made credit sales of $30,000 which are subject to 6% sales tax. The corporation also made cash sales which totaled $20,670 including the 6% sales tax. (a) Prepare the entry to record Dillons’ credit sales. (b) Prepare the entry to r

> Leon Wight, a newly hired loan analyst, is examining the current liabilities of a corporate loan applicant. He observes that unearned revenues have declined in the current year compared to the prior year. Is this a positive indicator about the client&r

> Sport Pro Magazine sold 12,000 annual subscriptions on August 1, 2014, for $18 each. Prepare Sport Pro’s August 1, 2014, journal entry and the December 31, 2014, annual adjusting entry, assuming the magazines are published and delivered monthly.

> Takemoto Corporation borrowed $60,000 on November 1, 2014, by signing a $61,350, 3-month, zero-interest-bearing note. Prepare Takemoto’s November 1, 2014, entry; the December 31, 2014, annual adjusting entry; and the February 1, 2015, entry.

> Upland Company borrowed $40,000 on November 1, 2014, by signing a $40,000, 9%, 3-month note. Prepare Upland’s November 1, 2014, entry; the December 31, 2014, annual adjusting entry; and the February 1, 2015, entry.

> Under what conditions is an employer required to accrue a liability for sick pay? Under what conditions is an employer permitted but not required to accrue a liability for sick pay?

> BE13-1 Roley Corporation uses a periodic inventory system and the gross method of accounting for purchase discounts. On July 1, Roley purchased $60,000 of inventory, terms 2/10, n/30, FOB shipping point. Roley paid freight costs of $1,200. On July 3, Rol

> When should liabilities for each of the following items be recorded on the books of an ordinary business corporation? (a) Acquisition of goods by purchase on credit. (b) Officers’ salaries. (c) Special bonus to employees. (d) Dividends. (e)

> How does the acid-test ratio differ from the current ratio? How are they similar?

> Within the current liabilities section, how do you believe the accounts should be listed? Defend your position.

> What factors must be considered in determining whether or not to record a liability for pending litigation? For threatened litigation?

> Should a liability be recorded for risk of loss due to lack of insurance coverage? Discuss.

> Pacific Airlines Co. awards members of its Frequent Fliers Club one free round-trip ticket, anywhere on its flight system, for every 50,000 miles flown on its planes. How would you account for the free ticket award?

> How are current liabilities related by definition to current assets? How are current liabilities related to a company’s operating cycle?

> Southeast Airlines Inc. awards members of its Flightline program a second ticket at half price, valid for 2 years anywhere on its flight system, when a full-price ticket is purchased. How would you account for the full-fare and half-fare tickets?

> How does the expense warranty approach differ from the sales warranty approach?

> Why is the liabilities section of the balance sheet of primary significance to bankers?  

> In an article that appeared in the Wall Street Journal, the phrases “phantom (paper) profits” and “high LIFO profits” through involuntary liquidation were used. Explain these phrases.  

> On December 31, 2013, the inventory of Powhattan Company amounts to $800,000. During 2014, the company decides to use the dollar-value LIFO method of costing inventories. On December 31, 2014, the inventory is $1,053,000 at December 31, 2014, prices. U

> Explain the following terms. (a) LIFO layer. (b) LIFO reserve. (c) LIFO effect.  

> Ford Motor Co. is considering alternate methods of accounting for the cash discounts it takes when paying suppliers promptly. One method suggested was to report these discounts as financial income when payments are made. Comment on the propriety of thi

> Distinguish between product costs and period costs as they relate to inventory.

> Define “cost” as applied to the valuation of inventories.  

> At the balance sheet date, Clarkson Company held title to goods in transit amounting to $214,000. This amount was omitted from the purchases figure for the year and also from the ending inventory. What is the effect of this omission on the net income f

> Where, if at all, should the following items be classified on a balance sheet? (a) Goods out on approval to customers. (b) Goods in transit that were recently purchased f.o.b. destination. (c) Land held by a realty firm for sale. (d) Raw materials.

> What is a product financing arrangement? How should product financing arrangements be reported in the financial statements?

> What is the dollar-value method of LIFO inventory valuation? What advantage does the dollar-value method have over the specific goods approach of LIFO inventory valuation? Why will the traditional LIFO inventory costing method and the dollar-value LIF

> Why should inventories be included in (a) a statement of financial position and (b) the computation of net income?  

> George Solti, the controller for Garrison Lumber Company, has recently hired you as assistant controller. He wishes to determine your expertise in the area of inventory accounting and therefore asks you to answer the following unrelated questions. (a)

> Wilkens Company uses the LIFO method for inventory costing. In an effort to lower net income, company president Mike Wilkens tells the plant accountant to take the unusual step of recommending to the purchasing department a large purchase of inventory

> Arruza Co. is considering switching from the specific-goods LIFO approach to the dollar-value LIFO approach. Because the financial personnel at Arruza know very little about dollar-value LIFO, they ask you to answer the following questions. (a) What i

> Geddes Corporation is a medium-sized manufacturing company with two divisions and three subsidiaries, all located in the United States. The Metallic Division manufactures metal castings for the automotive industry, and the Plastic Division produces sma

> Prepare a memorandum containing responses to the following items. (a) Describe the cost flow assumptions used in average-cost, FIFO, and LIFO methods of inventory valuation. (b) Distinguish between weighted-average-cost and moving-average-cost for in

> Jane Yoakam, president of Estefan Co., recently read an article that claimed that at least 100 of the country’s largest 500 companies were either adopting or considering adopting the last-in, first-out (LIFO) method for valuing inventories. The a

> In January 2014, Susquehanna Inc. requested and secured permission from the commissioner of the Internal Revenue Service to compute inventories under the last-in, first-out (LIFO) method and elected to determine inventory cost under the dollar-value LI

> Shawnee Corp., a household appliances dealer, purchases its inventories from various suppliers. Shawnee has consistently stated its inventories at the lower-of-cost (FIFO)-or-market. Instructions Shawnee is considering alternate methods of accounting

> As compared with the FIFO method of costing inventories, does the LIFO method result in a larger or smaller net income in a period of rising prices? What is the comparative effect on net income in a period of falling prices?  

> George Solti, the controller for Garrison Lumber Company, has recently hired you as assistant controller. He wishes to determine your expertise in the area of inventory accounting and therefore asks you to answer the following unrelated questions. (a)

> Brian Erlacher, an inventory control specialist, is interested in better understanding the accounting for inventories. Although Brian understands the more sophisticated computer inventory control systems, he has little knowledge of how inventory cost i

> You are asked to travel to Milwaukee to observe and verify the inventory of the Milwaukee branch of one of your clients. You arrive on Thursday, December 30, and find that the inventory procedures have just been started. You spot a railway car on the s

> The following information relates to the Jimmy Johnson Company. Instructions Use the dollar-value LIFO method to compute the ending inventory for Johnson Company for 2010 through 2014.  

> Presented below is information related to Dino Radja Company. Instructions Compute the ending inventory for Dino Radja Company for 2011 through 2016 using the dollar-value LIFO method.  

> The dollar-value LIFO method was adopted by Enya Corp. on January 1, 2014. Its inventory on that date was $160,000. On December 31, 2014, the inventory at prices existing on that date amounted to $140,000. The price level at January 1, 2014, was 100, a

> Oasis Company has used the dollar-value LIFO method for inventory cost determination for many years. The following data were extracted from Oasis’ records. Instructions Calculate the index used for 2015 that yielded the above results. &nbs

> Describe the LIFO double-extension method. Using the following information, compute the index at December 31, 2014, applying the double-extension method to a LIFO pool consisting of 25,500 units of product A and 10,350 units of product B. The base-year

> Johnny Football Shop began operations on January 2, 2014. The following stock record card for footballs was taken from the records at the end of the year. A physical inventory on December 31, 2014, reveals that 100 footballs were in stock. The boo

> The board of directors of Ichiro Corporation is considering whether or not it should instruct the accounting department to shift from a first-in, first-out (FIFO) basis of pricing inventories to a last-in, first-out (LIFO) basis. The following informat

> The following is a record of Pervis Ellison Company’s transactions for Boston Teapots for the month of May 2014. Instructions (a) Assuming that perpetual inventories are not maintained and that a physical count at the end of the month shows

> Presented below is information related to Blowfish radios for the Hootie Company for the month of July. Instructions (a) Assuming that the periodic inventory method is used, compute the inventory cost at July 31 under each of the following cost f

> Shania Twain Company was formed on December 1, 2013. The following information is available from Twain’s inventory records for Product BAP. A physical inventory on March 31, 2014, shows 1,600 units on hand. Instructions Prepare schedules t

> John Adams Company’s record of transactions for the month of April was as follows. Instructions (a) Assuming that periodic inventory records are kept in units only, compute the inventory at April 30 using (1) LIFO and (2) average-cost. (b)

> Inventory information for Part 311 of Monique Aaron Corp. discloses the following information for the month of June. Instructions (a) Assuming that the periodic inventory method is used, compute the cost of goods sold and ending inventory under (

> The net income per books of Linda Patrick Company was determined without knowledge of the errors indicated. Instructions Prepare a worksheet to show the adjusted net income figure for each of the 6 years after taking into account the inventory er

> How might a company obtain a price index in order to apply dollar-value LIFO?  

> At December 31, 2013, Stacy McGill Corporation reported current assets of $370,000 and current liabilities of $200,000. The following items may have been recorded incorrectly. 1. Goods purchased costing $22,000 were shipped f.o.b. shipping point by a

> Ann M. Martin Company makes the following errors during the current year. (Evaluate each case independently and assume ending inventory in the following year is correctly stated.) 1. Ending inventory is overstated, but purchases and related accounts p

> Fong Sai-Yuk Company sells one product. Presented below is information for January for Fong Sai-Yuk Company. Fong Sai-Yuk uses the FIFO cost flow assumption. All purchases and sales are on account. Instructions (a) Assume Fong Sai-Yuk uses a per

> Cruise Industries purchased $10,800 of merchandise on February 1, 2014, subject to a trade discount of 10% and with credit terms of 3/15, n/60. It returned $2,500 (gross price before trade or cash discount) on February 4. The invoice was paid on Februa

> Presented below are transactions related to Tom Brokaw, Inc. May 10 Purchased goods billed at $15,000 subject to cash discount terms of 2/10, n/60. 11 Purchased goods billed at $13,200 subject to terms of 1/15, n/30. 19 Paid invoice of May 10. 24 P

> Two or more items are omitted in each of the following tabulations of income statement data. Fill in the amounts that are missing.  

> Craig Company asks you to review its December 31, 2014, inventory values and prepare the necessary adjustments to the books. The following information is given to you. 1. Craig uses the periodic method of recording inventory. A physical count reveals

> Colin Davis Machine Company maintains a general ledger account for each class of inventory, debiting such accounts for increases during the period and crediting them for decreases. The transactions below relate to the Raw Materials inventory account, w

> Assume that in an annual audit of Harlowe Inc. at December 31, 2014, you find the following transactions near the closing date. 1. A special machine, fabricated to order for a customer, was finished and specifically segregated in the back part of the

> In your audit of Jose Oliva Company, you find that a physical inventory on December 31, 2014, showed merchandise with a cost of $441,000 was on hand at that date. You also discover the following items were all excluded from the $441,000. 1. Merchandis

> FIFO, average-cost, and LIFO methods are often used instead of specific identification for inventory valuation purposes. Compare these methods with the specific identification method, discussing the theoretical propriety of each method in the determina

> Presented below is a list of items that may or may not be reported as inventory in a company’s December 31 balance sheet. 1. Goods out on consignment at another company’s store. 2. Goods sold on an installment basis (bad debts can be reas

> Arna, Inc. uses the dollar-value LIFO method of computing its inventory. Data for the past 3 years follow. Instructions Compute the value of the 2014 and 2015 inventories using the dollar-value LIFO method.  

> Midori Company had ending inventory at end-of-year prices of $100,000 at December 31, 2013; $119,900 at December 31, 2014; and $134,560 at December 31, 2015. The year-end price indexes were 100 at 12/31/13, 110 at 12/31/14, and 116 at 12/31/15. Compute

> Units Unit Cost Total Cost $ 2,500 4,800 4,550 $10 April 1 inventory April 15 purchase April 23 purchase 250 400 12 350 13 1,000 $11,850

> Data for Amsterdam Company are presented in BE8-5. Compute the April 30 inventory and the April cost of goods sold using the FIFO method. In BE8-5  

> Amsterdam Company uses a periodic inventory system. For April, when the company sold 600 units, the following information is available. Compute the April 30 inventory and the April cost of goods sold using the average-cost method.  

> Bienvenu Enterprises reported cost of goods sold for 2014 of $1,400,000 and retained earnings of $5,200,000 at December 31, 2014. Bienvenu later discovered that its ending inventories at December 31, 2013 and 2014, were overstated by $110,000 and $35,0

> Stallman Company took a physical inventory on December 31 and determined that goods costing $200,000 were on hand. Not included in the physical count were $25,000 of goods purchased from Pelzer Corporation, f.o.b. shipping point, and $22,000 of goods s

> Matlock Company uses a perpetual inventory system. Its beginning inventory consists of 50 units that cost $34 each. During June, the company purchased 150 units at $34 each, returned 6 units for credit, and sold 125 units at $50 each. Journalize the Ju

> Included in the December 31 trial balance of Rivera Company are the following assets. Prepare the current assets section of the December 31 balance sheet.  

> Specific identification is sometimes said to be the ideal method of assigning cost to inventory and to cost of goods sold. Briefly indicate the arguments for and against this method of inventory valuation.  

> On July 1, 2014, Brigham Corporation purchased Young Company by paying $250,000 cash and issuing a $100,000 note payable to Steve Young. At July 1, 2014, the balance sheet of Young Company was as follows. The recorded amounts all approximate curre

> Part 1: On July 1, 2014, Wallace Company, a calendar-year company, sold special-order merchandise on credit and received in return an interest-bearing note receivable from the customer. Wallace Company will receive interest at the prevailing rate for a


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