But maybe the BMIs of all the participants changed during the four-week period. We can calculate the change in BMI for each participant in the study, and then compare the mean change for the 41 maids in the informed group with the mean change for the 34 in the uninformed group. Here is a display (Informed=1 means informed, Informed=0 means uninformed):
Which of these inference methods would you use to tell whether informing the maids made a difference in their BMIs? 1. See if the boxes in the boxplot overlap. The difference is significant if they donât. 2. Find a confidence interval for the paired changes in BMI for each group. If the confidence intervals donât overlap, then they are different. 3. Perform a two-sample t-test comparing whether the mean changes for the two groups are equal. 4. Use a Ãâ¡2 test of homogeneity. 5. Use a two-sample z-test for the proportions that gained weight in each group.
> What are noncash investing and financing activities? Provide an example. How are such transactions shown on the statement of cash flows?
> What are the three categories of cash flows reported on the cash flow statement? Discuss each and give an example of an inflow and an outflow for each category.
> Can a company report negative net cash flows from operating activities for the year on the statement of cash flows but still have positive net income on the income statement? Explain.
> How would Best Company report the following transactions on the statement of cash flows? (a) Purchased new equipment for $46,000 cash. (b) Sold old equipment for $8,700 cash. The equipment had a book value of $4,900.
> What is the advantage of using the direct method to present the statement of cash flows?
> What is the major advantage of using the indirect method to present the statement of cash flows?
> Which method (direct or indirect) of presenting the statement of cash flows is more intuitively logical? Why?
> What is the difference between preparing the statement of cash flows using the direct method and using the indirect method?
> In which section of the statement of cash flows would the following transactions be reported? (a) The amount of the change in the balance of accounts receivable. (b) Cash purchase of investment securities. (c) Cash purchase of equipment. (d) Cash sale of
> Magnificent Modems Inc. acquired a subsidiary named Anywhere Inc. (AI). AI manufactures a wireless modem that enables users to access the Internet through cell phones. The following Balance Sheet was drawn from the accounts of the subsidiary. The subsidi
> If Best Company sold office equipment that originally cost $7,500 and had $7,200 of accumulated depreciation at a $100 loss, what was the selling price for the office equipment?
> What is the purpose of the statement of cash flows?
> What are some limitations of the earnings per share figure?
> Which ratios are used to measure long-term debt-paying ability? How is each calculated?
> What is the difference between return on investment and return on equity?
> Why are absolute amounts of limited use when comparing companies?
> What is the difference between the current ratio and the quick ratio? What does each measure?
> What is the significance of inventory turnover, and how is it calculated?
> What is apparent from a horizontal presentation of financial statement information? A vertical presentation?
> What do the terms liquidity and solvency mean?
> Magnificent Modems Inc. (MMI) has several capital investment opportunities. The term, expected annual cash inflows, and the cost of each opportunity are outlined in the following table. MMI has established a desired rate of return of 16 percent for these
> How do accounting principles affect financial statement analysis?
> What environmental factors must be considered in analyzing companies?
> What is the price-earnings ratio? Explain the difference between it and the dividend yield.
> What is information overload?
> What is the formula for calculating return on investment (ROI)?
> Why are ratios and trends used in financial analysis?
> How is indirect labor recorded in ledger accounts? How is this labor eventually assigned to the items produced in a job-order costing system?
> In a job-order costing system, what are the Work in Process Inventory subsidiary records called? What information is included in these subsidiary records?
> How do source documents help accountants operate a costing system?
> Which system, a job-order or a process costing system, requires more documentation?
> Assume Magnificent Modems Inc. (MMI) is a division of Gilmore Business Products (GBP). GBP uses ROI as the primary measure of managerial performance. GBP has a desired return on investment (ROI) of 3 percent. The company has $100,000 of investment funds
> Ludwig Company, which normally operates a process costing system to account for the cost of the computers that it produces, has received a special order from a corporate client to produce and sell 5,000 computers. Can Ludwig use a job-order costing syste
> How is the unit cost of a product determined in a process costing system?
> Why do both job-order and process costing require some form of cost averaging?
> To what types of products is a process costing system best suited? Provide examples.
> The finishing department is the last of four sequential production departments for Kowalski Graphics Inc. The company’s other production departments are design, layout, and printing. The finishing department incurred the following costs in March Year 1:
> In a process costing system, what does the term transferred-in costs mean? How is the amount of transferred-in costs determined?
> What is the purpose of each of the three primary steps in a process costing system? Describe each.
> What is the weighted average method of determining equivalent units? Why is it used? What are its weaknesses?
> Bindon Furniture Manufacturing has completed its monthly inventory count for dining room chairs and recorded the following information for ending inventory: 600 units 100 percent complete, 300 units 60 percent complete, and 100 units 20 percent complete.
> The president of Videl Corporation tells you that her company has a difficult time determining the cost per unit of product that it makes. It seems that some units are always partially complete. Counting these units as complete understates the cost per u
> The management of Magnificent Modems Inc. (MMI) is uncertain as to the volume of sales that will exist in Year 1. The president of the company asked the chief accountant to prepare flexible budget income statements assuming that sales activity amounts to
> Use the June 30, 2020 Form 10-K for Microsoft Corporation to complete the requirements below. To obtain the Form 10-K, you can use the EDGAR system (see Appendix A at the back of this text for instructions), or it can be found under “Investors” on the co
> The following information was taken from GoPro, Inc.'s SEC filings. Table Summary: A table shows 3 columns. Columns 1 has entries. Column 2 has the fiscal year ended. Column 2 is divided into December 31, 2019 and December 31, 2018 Required 1. Explain wh
> Although Zhang Juanjuan won the gold medal in 2008, she did not perform extraordinarily well in the seeding round. How consistent are archers? The seeding round for the women is reported in two halves (1st half and 2nd half in the data file). Are the sco
> In the final round of competition, archers shoot only 12 arrows. Is it likely that an Olympic archer may make no X shots at all? Explain your reasoning. For seeding purposes (that is, to set up the final elimination round matches), the total score on the
> Here are summary statistics on X hits for each of the 64 female archers in the 2008 Olympics: 1. Construct a confidence interval for the proportion of arrows that hit the X circle. Write out your calculation; that is, donâ€™t just report
> For each of the following descriptions, select the letter of the inference method you would use. (It is possible for a method to be used more than once or not at all.) 1. Student t for a mean 2. one-proportion z 3. Ï‡2 goodness-of-fit 4. two-proportion z
> What conclusion can you draw from the test in Exercise 10? 1. The maids lost weight, on average. 2. The mean BMI for the informed maids changed during the study. 3. The mean difference in BMI was not zero for the maids who were informed that their work q
> The researcher was concerned about whether each maid BMI changed over the four-week study. Here are the results of a test performed using technology: Mean of Paired Differences=0.2068t-Statistic=3.853 w/72 dfP=0.0003 Using the proper notation, how would
> Now let consider only the maids who were informed. Here is a display of their body mass index (BMI), a measure of body fat, at the start (BMI) and at the end (BMI2) of the study. Which of these is the best comment to make about this display? 1. This is n
> Which type of study is this? 1. A prospective observational study because it followed the maids for four weeks. 2. A retrospective observational study because at the end of four weeks, the researcher had to look back at the original measurements. 3. A su
> Consider the relationship between the life expectancy (in years) and the illiteracy rate (per hundred people) in the 50 U.S. states plus Washington, DC. A linear model is run and the output is presented here: Residual standard deviation: 1.097 on 48 degr
> Examine the table about ethnicity and acceptance for the Houston Independent School District magnet schools program, shown in Exercise 35. Does it appear that the admissions decisions are made independent of the applicant ethnicity? Explain.
> The following table summarizes 1529 films from 2014 and 2015 that have been classified into a genre and have a MPAA rating. (Data from Movies 06-15) 1. What percent of these films were rated R? 2. What percent of these films were R-rated comedies? 3. Wha
> During contract negotiations, a company seeks to change the number of sick days employees may take, saying that the annual average is 7 days of absence per employee. The union negotiators counter that the average employee misses only 3 days of work each
> A clerk entering salary data into a company spreadsheet accidentally put an extra â€œ0â€ in the boss salary, listing it as $2,000,000 instead of $200,000. Explain how this error will affect these summary statistics for the company payroll: 1. Measures o
> Test scores from a calculus section of 40 students are shown in the histogram below. Describe the distribution of scores. Why might you be less sure of the description of the shape as compared to the histogram in Exercise 51?
> Test scores from a large calculus class of 400 are shown in the histogram below 1. Describe the distribution of scores. What might account for this shape? 2. Why might both the mean and median score be misleading as a summary of the center?
> In the Super Bowl, by how many points does the winning team outscore the losers? Here are the winning margins for the first 50 Super Bowl games. (Data in Super Bowl 2016) 25, 19, 9, 16, 3, 21, 7, 17, 10, 4, 18, 17, 4, 12, 17, 5, 10, 29, 22, 36, 19, 32, 4
> How many points do football teams score in the Super Bowl? Here are the total numbers of points scored by both teams in each of the first 50 Super Bowl games. (Data in Super Bowl 2016) 45, 47, 23, 30, 29, 27, 21, 31, 22, 38, 46, 37, 66, 50, 37, 47, 44, 4
> The Cornell Lab of Ornithology holds an annual Christmas Bird Count (www.birdsource.org), in which bird watchers at various locations around the country see how many different species of birds they can spot. Here are the numbers of species counted from t
> The histogram shows the lengths of hospital stays (in days) for all the female patients admitted to hospitals in New York during one year with a primary diagnosis of acute myocardial infarction (heart attack). 1. From the histogram, would you expect the
> One of the authors collected the times (in minutes) it took him to run 4 miles on various courses during a 10-year period. Here is a histogram of the times: Describe the distribution and summarize the important features. What is it about running that mig
> Look once more at the table summarizing the political views of Intro Stats students in Exercise 30. 1. Produce a graphical display comparing the conditional distributions of males and females among the three categories of politics. 2. Comment briefly on
> The histogram shows the carbohydrate content of 77 breakfast cereals (in grams). 1. Describe this distribution. 2. If you can, open the dataset and identify the cereals with the highest carbohydrate content.
> A survey of athletic trainers asked what modalities (treatment methods such as ice, whirlpool, ultrasound, or exercise) they commonly use to treat injuries. Respondents were each asked to list three modalities. The article included the following figure r
> The Yale Program on Climate Change Communication surveyed 1263 American adults in March 2015 and asked them about their attitudes on global climate change. Here a display of the percentages of respondents choosing each of the major alternatives offered.
> Fifty-nine countries won gold medals in the 2016 Summer Olympics. The table lists them, along with the total number of gold medals each won. 1. Try to make a display of these data. What problems do you encounter? 2. Organize the data so that the graph is
> The movie genres listed in Exercise 35 were originally listed as these: 1. What problem would you encounter in trying to make a display of these data? 2. How did the creators of the bar chart in Exercise 35 solve this problem?
> An investigator compiled information about recent nonmilitary plane crashes. The causes, to the extent that they could be determined, are summarized in the table. 1. Is it reasonable to conclude that the weather or mechanical failures caused only about 3
> The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention lists causes of death in the United States during 2014: 1. Is it reasonable to conclude that heart or lung diseases were the cause of approximately 29.04% of U.S. deaths in 2014? 2. What percentage of deaths
> The Chance article about the Houston magnet schools program described in Exercise 37 also indicated that 517 applicants were black or Hispanic, 292 Asian, and 946 white. Summarize the relative frequency distribution of ethnicity with a sentence or two (i
> An article in the Winter 2003 issue of Chance magazine (www.chance.amstat.org) reported on the Houston Independent School District magnet schools programs. Of the 1755 qualified applicants, 931 were accepted, 298 were wait-listed, and 526 were turned awa
> Here is a bar chart summarizing the movie ratings from the 891 movies shown in Exercise 4. 1. Which was the least common rating? 2. Is it easier to answer the question from the bar chart or from the pie chart in Exercise 4? Explain.
> The A Chance magazine article described in Chapter 2, Exercise 37 further examined the impact of an applicant ethnicity on the likelihood of admission to the Houston Independent School District magnet schools programs. Those data are summarized in the ta
> Here is a bar chart summarizing the movie genres from the 891 movies in Exercise 3. (Data extracted from Movies 06-15) 1. Were Thriller/Suspense or Adventure films more common? 2. Is it easier to answer the question from the bar chart or from the pie cha
> Would you expect distributions of these variables to be uniform, unimodal, or bimodal? Symmetric or skewed? Explain why. 1. Ages of people at a Little League game 2. Number of siblings of people in your class 3. Pulse rates of college-age males 4. Number
> Would you expect distributions of these variables to be uniform, unimodal, or bimodal? Symmetric or skewed? Explain why. 1. The number of speeding tickets each student in the senior class of a college has ever had 2. Players scores (number of strokes) at
> Find an article in a newspaper, a magazine, or the Internet that discusses a measure of spread. 1. Does the article discuss the W for the data? 2. What are the units of the variable? 3. Does the article use the range, IQR, or standard deviation? 4. Is th
> Find an article in a newspaper, a magazine, or the Internet that discusses an average. 1. Does the article discuss the W for the data? 2. What are the units of the variable? 3. Is the average used the median or the mean? How can you tell? 4. Is the choic
> Find a graph other than a histogram that shows the distribution of a quantitative variable in a newspaper, a magazine, or the Internet. 1. Does the article identify the W? 2. Discuss whether the display is appropriate for the data. 3. Discuss what the di
> Find a histogram that shows the distribution of a variable in a newspaper, a magazine, or the Internet. 1. Does the article identify the W? 2. Discuss whether the display is appropriate. 3. Discuss what the display reveals about the variable and its dist
> Find a table of categorical data from a newspaper, a magazine, or the Internet. 1. Is it clearly labeled? 2. Does it display percentages or counts? 3. Does the accompanying article tell the W of the variables? 4. Do you think the article correctly interp
> Find a frequency table of categorical data from a newspaper, a magazine, or the Internet. 1. Is it clearly labeled? 2. Does it display percentages or counts? 3. Does the accompanying article tell the W of the variable? 4. Do you think the article correct
> Find a pie chart of categorical data from a newspaper, a magazine, or the Internet. 1. Is the graph clearly labeled? 2. Does it violate the area principle? 3. Does the accompanying article tell the W of the variable? 4. Do you think the article correctly
> Look again at the table of political views for the Intro Stats students in Exercise 30. 1. Find the conditional distributions (percentages) of political views for the females. 2. Find the conditional distributions (percentages) of political views for the
> Find a bar chart of categorical data from a newspaper, a magazine, or the Internet. 1. Is the graph clearly labeled? 2. Does it violate the area principle? 3. Does the accompanying article tell the W of the variable? 4. Do you think the article correctly
> Here is a mosaic plot of the data on being successful from Exercise 10: 1. Are the differences in sample sizes in the four groups very large? Explain briefly. 2. Which factor seems more important in determining how someone responded: Age or Gender? Expla
> The organization Monitoring the Future (www.monitoringthefuture.org) asked 2048 eighth graders who said they smoked cigarettes what brands they preferred. The table shows brand preferences for two regions of the country. Write a few sentences describing
> The New York Times combined survey data (economix.blogs.nytimes.com/2013/07/10/working-parents-wanting-fewer-hours/) with data from the U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics (BLS) (www.bls.gov/news.release/archives/famee_04262013.htm) comparing how mothers and
> Pew Research (www.pewsocialtrends.org/2013/03/14/modern-parenthood-roles-of-moms-and-dads converge-as-they-balance-work-and-family/) surveyed parents and asked how many hours they spent in various activities. They compared 2011 responses with those from
> Look again at the table of smoking prevalence in Exercise 19. 1. Compare the smoking rate among 1824-year-old women to that of men during the time covered by this table. 2. Relatively few women over the age of 65 smoke. What other variables might affect
> The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention provide data on smoking rates by year and for men and women separately. Here is a table with some of that information: 1. What was the smoking rate among 1824-year-old men in 1974? 2. How has the smoking rat
> You find a number of cartoons throughout this text. Are they Are cartoons simply entertaining, or will they help with learning? Lawrence M. Lesser, Dennis K. Pearl, and John J. Weber III (Assessing fun items effectiveness in increasing learning of colleg
> A recent article in Geophysical Research Letters (Asteroid impact effects and their immediate hazards for human populations, 10.1002/2017GL073191) simulated the consequences of an earth impact by an asteroid of 400 m in diameter. They estimate that for a
> The Motion Picture Association of America studies the ethnicity of moviegoers to understand changes in the demographics of moviegoers over time. Here are the numbers of moviegoers (in millions) classified as Hispanic, African American, Caucasian, and Oth
> Look again at the table of post-graduation plans for the senior class in Exercise 29. 1. Find the conditional distributions (percentages) of plans for the white students. 2. Find the conditional distributions (percentages) of plans for the minority stude
> In 2012, the following data were reported by the U.S. Census Bureau. The data show the number of people (in thousands) living above and below the poverty line in each of the four regions of the United States. Based on these data, do you think there is an