In terms of saving energy, bicycling and walking are far more efficient means of transportation than is travel by automobile. For example, when riding at 10.0 mi/h, a cyclist uses food energy at a rate of about 400 kcal/h above what he would use if he were merely sitting still. (In exercise physiology, power is often measured in kcal/h rather than in watts. Here, 1 kcal = 1 nutritionist’s Calorie = 4186 J.) Walking at 3.00 mi/h requires about 220 kcal/h. It is interesting to compare these values with the energy consumption required for travel by car. Gasoline yields about 1.30 x 108 J/gal. Find the fuel economy in equivalent miles per gallon for a person (a) Walking and (b) Bicycling.
> Bed & Bath, a retailing company, has two departmentsâ€”Hardware and Linens. The companyâ€™s most recent monthly contribution format income statement follows: A study indicates that $340,000 of the fixed expenses being
> The Regal Cycle Company manufactures three types of bicyclesâ€”a dirt bike, a mountain bike, and a racing bike. Data on sales and expenses for the past quarter follow: Management is concerned about the continued losses shown by the racin
> The table shown below contains three performance measures for each of the four perspectives of the balanced scorecard. Required: 1. Choose one of the three learning and growth measures and write an if-then hypothesis statement that connects it to one of
> The table shown below contains a variety of performance measures that companies might use as internal business process measures in their balanced scorecards. Each measure is accompanied by: a + or âˆ’ to indicate whether the performance m
> What is the difference between net cash provided by operating activities and free cash flow?
> The table shown below contains four performance measures for four different companies. Each set of performance measures contains one measure for each of the four perspectives of the balanced scorecard. Required: 1. For each of companies A, B, C, and D:
> Walton Company has measured its quality costs for the past two years. After the company gathers its quality cost data, it summarizes those costs using the four categories shown below: Required: 1. Calculate the total cost of quality last year and this y
> The table shown below contains five measures under the column heading If and five measures under the column heading Then. Required: 1. For each row in the table, write an if-then hypothesis statement that connects the two measures. Be sure to indicate w
> Askew Company is interested in adopting the balanced scorecard. As a first step, the company just completed a brainstorming activity to define areas where it needs to improve with respect to learning and growth, internal business process performance, cus
> Jefferson Companyâ€™s demand for its only product exceeds its manufacturing capacity. The company provided the following information for the machine whose limited capacity is prohibiting the company from producing and selling additional u
> A number of activities that are part of a company’s quality control system are listed below: a. Product testing. b. Product recalls. c. Rework labor and overhead. d. Quality circles. e. Downtime caused by defects. f. Cost of field servicing. g. Inspectio
> Refer to the data for Lavage Rapide in Exercise 9â€“9. Also, assume that the companyâ€™s actual operating results for August are as follows: Required: Calculate the companyâ€™s revenue and spending varianc
> The Gourmand Cooking School runs short cooking courses at its small campus. Management has identified two cost drivers it uses in its budgeting and performance reportsâ€”the number of courses and the total number of students. For example,
> Alyeski Tours operates day tours of coastal glaciers in Alaska on its tour boat the Blue Glacier. Management has identified two cost driversâ€”the number of cruises and the number of passengersâ€”that it uses in its budget
> Vulcan Flyovers offers scenic overflights of Mount St. Helens, the volcano in Washington State that explosively erupted in 1982. Data concerning the companyâ€™s operations in July appear below: The company measures its activity in terms
> Why do companies measure their corporate social responsibility performance?
> Reid Company would like to implement a balanced scorecard performance measurement system. Its senior management team has assembled the measures shown below for possible inclusion in its scorecard. Required: For each measure, indicate by placing an X in
> Advanced Products Corporation has supplied the following data from its activity-based costing system: During the year, Advanced Products completed one order for a new customer, Shenzhen Enterprises. This customer did not order any other products durin
> Fogerty Company makes two productsâ€”titanium Hubs and Sprockets. Data regarding the two products follow: Additional information about the company follows: a. Hubs require $32 in direct materials per unit, and Sprockets require $18. b. T
> The manager of the Westfield branch of Security Home Bank has provided the following data concerning the transactions of the branch during the past year: The lowest costs reported by other branches for these activities are displayed below: (This exerci
> The operations vice president of Security Home Bank has been interested in investigating the efficiency of the bankâ€™s operations. She has been particularly concerned about the costs of handling routine transactions at the bank and would
> Flash Express purchases USB flash drives from suppliers and then applies corporate logos to the exterior of those flash drives for its customers. The company maintains a dedicated piece of equipment for each type of product that is processes, such as “to
> Tan Corporation of Japan has two regional divisions with headquarters in Osaka and Yokohama. Selected data on the two divisions follow: Required: 1. For each division, compute the margin, turnover, and return on investment (ROI). Where necessary, carry
> Sako Companyâ€™s Audio Division produces a speaker that is used by manufacturers of various audio products. Sales and cost data on the speaker follow: Sako Company has a Hi-Fi Division that could use this speaker in one of its products.
> Klumper Corporation is a diversified manufacturer of industrial goods. The companyâ€™s activity based costing system contains the following six activity cost pools and activity rates: Activity data have been supplied for the following tw
> Green Thumb Gardening is a small gardening service that uses activity-based costing to estimate costs for pricing and other purposes. The proprietor of the company believes that costs are driven primarily by the size of customer lawns, the size of custom
> Why should companies link their balanced scorecard measures to their employee reward systems?
> Define the following: (a) direct materials, (b) indirect materials, (c) direct labor, (d) indirect labor, and (e) manufacturing overhead.
> A 6.50 x 102 - kg elevator starts from rest and moves upward for 3.00 s with constant acceleration until it reaches its cruising speed, 1.75 m/s. (a) What is the average power of the elevator motor during this period? (b) How does this amount of power co
> A 62.0 - kg cheetah accelerates from rest to its top speed of 32.0 m/s. (a) How much network is required for the cheetah to reach its top speed? (b) One food Calorie equals 4186 J. How many Calories of network are required for the cheetah to reach its to
> A worker pushing a 35.0 - kg wooden crate at a constant speed for 12.0 m along a wood floor does 350 J of work by applying a constant horizontal force of magnitude F0 on the crate. (a) Determine the value of F0. (b) If the worker now applies a force grea
> A 7.00 - kg bowling ball moves at 3.00 m/s. How fast must a 2.45 - g Ping - Pong ball move so that the two balls have the same kinetic energy?
> A block of mass m = 2.50 kg is pushed a distance d = 2.20 m along a frictionless horizontal table by a constant applied force of magnitude F = 16.0 N directed at an angle Î¸ = 25.0Â° below the horizontal as shown in Figure P5.8. Det
> A horizontal force of 150 N is used to push a 40.0 - kg packing crate a distance of 6.00 m on a rough horizontal surface. If the crate moves at constant speed, find (a) The work done by the 150 - N force and (b) The coefficient of kinetic friction betwee
> A shopper in a supermarket pushes a cart with a force of 35 N directed at an angle of 25° below the horizontal. The force is just sufficient to overcome various frictional forces, so the cart moves at constant speed. (a) Find the work done by the shopper
> Two blocks, A and B (with mass 50.0 kg and 1.00 x 102 kg, respectively), are connected by a string, as shown in Figure P5.86. The pulley is frictionless and of negligible mass. The coefficient of kinetic friction between block A and the incline is Â
> Three objects with masses m1 = 5.00 kg, m2 = 10.0 kg, and m3 = 15.0 kg, respectively, are attached by strings over frictionless pulleys as indicated in Figure P5.85. The horizontal surface exerts a force of friction of 30.0 N on m2. If the system is rele
> A cat plays with a toy mouse suspended from a light string of length 1.25 m, rapidly batting the mouse so that it acquires a speed of 2.75 m/s while the string is still vertical. Use energy conservation to find the mouse’s maximum height above its origin
> A loaded ore car has a mass of 9.50 x 102 kg and rolls on rails with negligible friction. It starts from rest and is pulled up a mine shaft by a cable connected to a winch. The shaft is inclined at 30.0° above the horizontal. The car accelerates uniforml
> Choose the best answer. A car traveling at constant speed has a net work of zero done on it. (a) True (b) False (c) The answer depends on the motion.
> As a 75.0 - kg man steps onto a bathroom scale, the spring inside the scale compresses by 0.650 mm. Excited to see that he has lost 2.50 kg since his previous weigh - in, the man jumps 0.300 m straight up into the air and lands directly on the scale. (a)
> A truck travels uphill with constant velocity on a highway with a 7.0° slope. A 50. - kg package sits on the floor of the back of the truck and does not slide, due to a static frictional force. During an interval in which the truck travels 340 m, (a) Wha
> Apollo 14 astronaut Alan Shepard famously took two golf shots on the Moon where it’s been estimated that an expertly hit shot could travel for 70.0 s through the Moon’s reduced gravity, airless environment to a maximum range of 4.00 km (about 2.5 miles).
> In the dangerous “sport” of bungee jumping, a daring student jumps from a hot air balloon with a specially designed elastic cord attached to his waist. The unstretched length of the cord is 25.0 m, the student weighs 7.00 x 102 N, and the balloon is 36.0
> A hummingbird hovers by exerting a downward force on the air equal, on average, to its weight. By Newton’s third law, the air exerts an upward force of the same magnitude on the bird’s wings. Find the average mechanical power delivered by a 3.00 - g humm
> A childâ€™s pogo stick (Fig. P5.77) stores energy in a spring (k = 2.50 x 104 N/m). At position â’¶ (x1 = -0.100 m), the spring compression is a maximum and the child is momentarily at rest. At position â’&middo
> A 5.0 - kg block is pushed 3.0 m up a vertical wall with constant speed by a constant force of magnitude F applied at an angle of Î¸ = 30Â° with the horizontal, as shown in Figure P5.76. If the coefficient of kinetic friction betwee
> A ski jumper starts from rest 50.0 m above the ground on a frictionless track and flies off the track at an angle of 45.0° above the horizontal and at a height of 10.0 m above the level ground. Neglect air resistance. (a) What is her speed when she leave
> A 50.0 - kg student evaluates a weight loss program by calculating the number of times she would need to climb a 12.0 - m high flight of steps in order to lose one pound (0.45 kg) of fat. Metabolizing 1.00 kg of fat can release 3.77 x 107 J of chemical e
> A weightlifter lifts a 350-N set of weights from ground level to a position over his head, a vertical distance of 2.00 m. How much work does the weightlifter do, assuming he moves the weights at constant speed?
> The particle described in Problem 71 (Fig. P5.71) is released from point A at rest. Its speed at B is 1.50 m/s. (a) What is its kinetic energy at B? (b) How much mechanical energy is lost as a result of friction as the particle goes from A to B? (c) Is i
> A 2.00 x 102 - g particle is released from rest at point A on the inside of a smooth hemispherical bowl of radius R = 30.0 cm (Fig. P5.71). Calculate (a) Its gravitational potential energy at A relative to B, (b) Its kinetic energy at B, (c) Its speed at
> A 3.50 - kN piano is lifted by three workers at constant speed to an apartment 25.0 m above the street using a pulley system fastened to the roof of the building. Each worker is able to deliver 165 W of power, and the pulley system is 75% efficient (so t
> Two objects (m1 = 5.00 kg and m2 = 3.00 kg) are connected by a light string passing over a light, frictionless pulley as in Figure P5.69. The 5.00 - kg object is released from rest at a point h = 4.00 m above the table. (a) Determine the speed of each ob
> A toy gun uses a spring to project a 5.3 - g soft rubber sphere horizontally. The spring constant is 8.0 N/m, the barrel of the gun is 15 cm long, and a constant frictional force of 0.032 N exists between barrel and projectile. With what speed does the p
> (a) A 75 - kg man steps out a window and falls (from rest) 1.0 m to a sidewalk. What is his speed just before his feet strike the pavement? (b) If the man falls with his knees and ankles locked, the only cushion for his fall is an approximately 0.50 - cm
> A block of mass 12.0 kg slides from rest down a frictionless 35.0° incline and is stopped by a strong spring with k = 3.00 x 104 N/m. The block slides 3.00 m from the point of release to the point where it comes to rest against the spring. When the block
> An archer pulls her bowstring back 0.400 m by exerting a force that increases uniformly from zero to 230 N. (a) What is the equivalent spring constant of the bow? (b) How much work does the archer do in pulling the bow?
> A ball of mass m = 1.80 kg is released from rest at a height h = 65.0 cm above a light vertical spring of force constant k as in Figure P5.64a. The ball strikes the top of the spring and compresses it a distance d = 9.00 cm as in Figure P5.64b. Neglectin
> A roller - coaster car of mass 1.50 x 103 kg is initially at the top of a rise at point Ⓐ. It then moves 35.0 m at an angle of 50.0° below the horizontal to a lower point Ⓑ. (a) Find both the potential energy of the system when the car is at points Ⓐ and
> A boy standing at one end of a floating raft that is stationary relative to the shore walks to the opposite end of the raft, away from the shore. As a consequence, the raft (a) Remains stationary, (b) Moves away from the shore, or (c) Moves toward the sh
> An outfielder throws a 0.150 - kg baseball at a speed of 40.0 m/s and an initial angle of 30.0°. What is the kinetic energy of the ball at the highest point of its motion?
> The force acting on an object is given by Fx = (8x - 16) N, where x is in meters. (a) Make a plot of this force vs. x from x = 0 to x = 3.00 m. (b) From your graph, find the net work done by the force as the object moves from x = 0 to x = 3.00 m.
> An object of mass 3.00 kg is subject to a force Fx that varies with position as in Figure P5.60. Find the work done by the force on the object as it moves (a) From x = 0 to x = 5.00 m, (b) From x = 5.00 m to x = 10.0 m, and (c) From x = 10.0 m to x = 15.
> The force acting on a particle varies as in Figure P5.59. Find the work done by the force as the particle moves (a) From x = 0 to x = 8.00 m, (b) From x = 8.00 m to x = 10.0 m, and (c) From x = 0 to x = 10.0 m. Figure P5.59:
> A 1.50 x 103 - kg car starts from rest and accelerates uniformly to 18.0 m/s in 12.0 s. Assume that air resistance remains constant at 4.00 x 102 N during this time. Find (a) The average power developed by the engine and (b) The instantaneous power outpu
> A certain rain cloud at an altitude of 1.75 km contains 3.20 x 107 kg of water vapor. How long would it take for a 2.70 - kW pump to raise the same amount of water from Earth’s surface to the cloud’s position?
> Under normal conditions the human heart converts about 13.0 J of chemical energy per second into 1.30 W of mechanical power as it pumps blood throughout the body. (a) Determine the number of Calories required to power the heart for one day, given that 1
> The electric motor of a model train accelerates the train from rest to 0.620 m/s in 21.0 ms. The total mass of the train is 875 g. Find the average power delivered to the train during its acceleration.
> The electric motor of a model train accelerates the train from rest to 0.620 m/s in 21.0 ms. The total mass of the train is 875 g. Find the average power delivered to the train during its acceleration.
> Two masses m1 and m2, with m1 < m2, have equal kinetic energy. How do the magnitudes of their momenta compare? (a) Not enough information is given. (b) p1 < p2 (c) p1 = p2 (d) p1 > p2.
> While running, a person dissipates about 0.60 J of mechanical energy per step per kilogram of body mass. If a 60. - kg person develops a power of 70. W during a race, how fast is the person running? (Assume a running step is 1.5 m long.)
> What average mechanical power must a 70.0 - kg mountain climber generate to climb to the summit of a hill of height 325 m in 45.0 min? Note: Due to inefficiencies in converting chemical energy to mechanical energy, the amount calculated here is only a fr
> A skier of mass 70.0 kg is pulled up a slope by a motordriven cable. (a) How much work is required to pull him 60.0 m up a 30.0° slope (assumed frictionless) at a constant speed of 2.00 m/s? (b) What power (expressed in hp) must a motor have to perform t
> An 80.0 - kg skydiver jumps out of a balloon at an altitude of 1.00 x 103 m and opens the parachute at an altitude of 200.0 m. (a) Assuming that the total retarding force on the diver is constant at 50.0 N with the parachute closed and constant at 3.60 x
> In a circus performance, a monkey is strapped to a sled and both are given an initial speed of 4.0 m/s up a 20.0° inclined track. The combined mass of monkey and sled is 20. kg, and the coefficient of kinetic friction between sled and incline is 0.20. Ho
> A skier starts from rest at the top of a hill that is inclined 10.5° with respect to the horizontal. The hillside is 2.00 x 102 m long, and the coefficient of friction between snow and skis is 0.075 0. At the bottom of the hill, the snow is level and the
> A child of mass m starts from rest and slides without friction from a height h along a curved waterslide (Fig. P5.46). She is launched from a height h/5 into the pool. (a) Is mechanical energy conserved? Why? (b) Give the gravitational potential energy a
> A 2.1 x 103 - kg car starts from rest at the top of a 5.0 - m - long driveway that is inclined at 20.0° with the horizontal. If an average friction force of 4.0 x 103 N impedes the motion, find the speed of the car at the bottom of the driveway.
> A 25.0 - kg child on a 2.00 - m - long swing is released from rest when the ropes of the swing make an angle of 30.0° with the vertical. (a) Neglecting friction, find the child’s speed at the lowest position. (b) If the actual speed of the child at the l
> The system shown in Figure P5.43 is used to lift an object of mass m = 76.0 kg. A constant downward force of magnitude F is applied to the loose end of the rope such that the hanging object moves upward at constant speed. Neglecting the masses of the rop
> A bowling ball onboard a space station is floating at rest relative to the station and an astronaut nudges a Ping-Pong ball toward it at speed υ, initiating a perfectly elastic head-on collision. Which answer is closest to the Ping-Pong ball’s speed afte
> An airplane of mass 1.50 x 104 kg is moving at 60.0 m/s. The pilot then increases the engine’s thrust to 7.50 x 104 N. The resistive force exerted by air on the airplane has a magnitude of 4.00 x 104 N. (a) Is the work done by the engine on the airplane
> (a) A child slides down a water slide at an amusement park from an initial height h. The slide can be considered frictionless because of the water flowing down it. Can the equation for conservation of mechanical energy be used on the child? (b) Is the ma
> (a) A block with a mass m is pulled along a horizontal surface for a distance x by a constant force F( at an angle θ with respect to the horizontal. The coefficient of kinetic friction between block and table is µk. Is the force exerted by friction equal
> The launching mechanism of a toy gun consists of a spring of unknown spring constant, as shown in Figure P5.39a. If the spring is compressed a distance of 0.120 m and the gun fired vertically as shown, the gun can launch a 20.0 - g projectile from rest t
> Two blocks are connected by a light string that passes over a frictionless pulley as in Figure P5.38. The system is released from rest while m2 is on the floor and m1 is a distance h above the floor. (a) Assuming m1 > m2, find an expression for the sp
> Tarzan swings on a 30.0 - m - long vine initially inclined at an angle of 37.0° with the vertical. What is his speed at the bottom of the swing a) If he starts from rest? (b) If he pushes off with a speed of 4.00 m/s?
> A block of mass m = 5.00 kg is released from rest from point â’¶ and slides on the frictionless track shown in Figure P5.36. Determine (a) The blockâ€™s speed at points â’· and â’¸ and (b
> A 0.250 - kg block along a horizontal track has a speed of 1.50 m/s immediately before colliding with a light spring of force constant 4.60 N/m located at the end of the track. (a) What is the spring’s maximum compression if the track is frictionless? (b
> A 35.0 - cm long spring is hung vertically from a ceiling and stretches to 41.5 cm when a 7.50 - kg weight is hung from its free end. (a) Find the spring constant. (b) Find the length of the spring if the 7.50 - kg weight is replaced with a 195 - N weigh
> A child and a sled with a combined mass of 50.0 kg slide down a frictionless slope. If the sled starts from rest and has a speed of 3.00 m/s at the bottom, what is the height of the hill?
> In a perfectly inelastic one-dimensional collision between two objects, what initial condition alone is necessary so that all of the original kinetic energy of the system is gone after the collision? (a) The objects must have momenta with the same magnit
> A 50. - kg pole vaulter running at 10. m/s vaults over the bar. Her speed when she is above the bar is 1.0 m/s. Neglect air resistance, as well as any energy absorbed by the pole, and determine her altitude as she crosses the bar.
> A horizontal spring attached to a wall has a force constant of 850 N/m. A block of mass 1.00 kg is attached to the spring and oscillates freely on a horizontal, frictionless surface as in Figure 5.22. The initial goal of this problem is to find the veloc
> A projectile of mass m is fired horizontally with an initial speed of υ0 from a height of h above a flat, desert surface. Neglecting air friction, at the instant before the projectile hits the ground, find the following in terms of m, υ0, h, and g: (a) T
> A 50.0 - kg projectile is fired at an angle of 30.0° above the horizontal with an initial speed of 1.20 x 102 m/s from the top of a cliff 142 m above level ground, where the ground is taken to be y = 0. (a) What is the initial total mechanical energy of
> A flea is able to jump about 0.5 m. It has been said that if a flea were as big as a human, it would be able to jump over a 100 - story building! When an animal jumps, it converts work done in contracting muscles into gravitational potential energy (with
> The chin - up is one exercise that can be used to strengthen the biceps muscle. This muscle can exert a force of approximately 8.00 x 102 N as it contracts a distance of 7.5 cm in a 75 - kg male.3 (a) How much work can the biceps muscles (one in each arm
> Truck suspensions often have â€œhelper springsâ€ that engage at high loads. One such arrangement is a leaf spring with a helper coil spring mounted on the axle, as shown in Figure P5.26. When the main leaf spring is compr