(a) Can the kinetic energy of a system be negative? (b) Can the gravitational potential energy of a system be negative? Explain.
> For each of the situations given, state whether frictional forces do positive, negative, or zero work on the italicized object. (a) A plate slides across a table and is brought to rest by friction. (b) A person pushes a chair at constant speed across a r
> A 65.0 - kg runner has a speed of 5.20 m/s at one instant during a long - distance event. (a) What is the runner’s kinetic energy at this instant? (b) How much net work is required to double his speed?
> The driver of a car slams on her brakes to avoid colliding with a deer crossing the highway. What happens to the car’s kinetic energy as it comes to rest?
> A mechanic pushes a 2.50 x 103- kg car from rest to a speed of υ, doing 5.00 x 103 J of work in the process. During this time, the car moves 25.0 m. Neglecting friction between car and road, find (a) υ and (b) The horizontal force exerted on the car.
> Show that the kinetic energy of a particle of mass m is related to the magnitude of the momentum p of that particle by KE = p2/2m. (Note: This expression is invalid for particles traveling at speeds near that of light.)
> Discuss whether any work is being done by each of the following agents and, if so, whether the work is positive or negative: (a) A chicken scratching the ground, (b) A person studying, (c) A crane lifting a bucket of concrete, (d) The force of gravity on
> Drops of rain fall perpendicular to the roof of a parked car during a rainstorm. The drops strike the roof with a speed of 12 m/s, and the mass of rain per second striking the roof is 0.035 kg/s. (a) Assuming the drops come to rest after striking the roo
> A 0.280-kg volleyball approaches a player horizontally with a speed of 15.0 m/s. The player strikes the ball with her fist and causes the ball to move in the opposite direction with a speed of 22.0 m/s. (a) What impulse is delivered to the ball by the pl
> A pitcher claims he can throw a 0.145-kg baseball with as much momentum as a 3.00-g bullet moving with a speed of 1.50 x 103 m/s. (a) What must the baseball’s speed be if the pitcher’s claim is valid? (b) Which has greater kinetic energy, the ball or the
> A high-speed photograph of a club hitting a golf ball is shown in Figure 6.3. The club was in contact with a ball, initially at rest, for about 0.0020 s. If the ball has a mass of 55 g and leaves the head of the club with a speed of 2.0 x 102 ft/s, find
> Calculate the magnitude of the linear momentum for the following cases: (a) A proton with mass equal to 1.67 x 10-27 kg, moving with a speed of 5.00 x 106 m/s; (b) A 15.0-g bullet moving with a speed of 300 m/s; (c) A 75.0-kg sprinter running with a spee
> Three ice skaters meet at the center of a rink and each stands at rest facing the center, within arm’s reach of the other two. On a signal, each skater pushes himself away from the other two across the frictionless ice. After the push, skater A with mass
> An astronaut in her space suit has a total mass of 87.0 kg, including suit and oxygen tank. Her tether line loses its attachment to her spacecraft while sheâ€™s on a spacewalk. Initially at rest with respect to her spacecraft, she throws
> Two objects of masses m1 = 0.56 kg and m2 = 0.88 kg are placed on a horizontal frictionless surface and a compressed spring of force constant k = 280 N/m is placed between them as in Figure P6.28a. Neglect the mass of the spring. The spring is not attach
> A 65.0 - kg person throws a 0.045 0 - kg snowball forward with a ground speed of 30.0 m/s. A second person, with a mass of 60.0 kg, catches the snowball. Both people are on skates. The first person is initially moving forward with a speed of 2.50 m/s, an
> A 75 - kg fisherman in a 125 - kg boat throws a package of mass m = 15 kg horizontally toward the right with a speed of Ï…i = 4.5 m/s as in Figure P6.26. Neglecting water resistance, and assuming the boat is at rest before the package is thrown
> A tension force of 175 N inclined at 20.0° above the horizontal is used to pull a 40.0 - kg packing crate a distance of 6.00 m on a rough surface. If the crate moves at a constant speed, find (a) The work done by the tension force and (b) The coefficient
> Squids are the fastest marine invertebrates, using a powerful set of muscles to take in and then eject water in a form of jet propulsion that can propel them to speeds of over 11.5 m/s. What speed would a stationary 1.50 - kg squid achieve by ejecting 0.
> A girl of mass mG is standing on a plank of mass mP. Both are originally at rest on a frozen lake that constitutes a frictionless, flat surface. The girl begins to walk along the plank at a constant velocity υGP to the right relative to the plank. (The s
> A 45.0 - kg girl is standing on a 150. - kg plank. The plank, originally at rest, is free to slide on a frozen lake, which is a flat, frictionless surface. The girl begins to walk along the plank at a constant velocity of 1.50 m/s to the right relative t
> A rifle with a weight of 30.0 N fires a 5.00 - g bullet with a speed of 3.00 x 102 m/s. (a) Find the recoil speed of the rifle. (b) If a 7.00 x 102 - N man holds the rifle firmly against his shoulder, find the recoil speed of the man and rifle.
> High - speed stroboscopic photographs show that the head of a 2.00 x 102 - g golf club is traveling at 55.0 m/s just before it strikes a 46.0 - g golf ball at rest on a tee. After the collision, the club head travels (in the same direction) at 40.0 m/s.
> A pitcher throws a 0.14-kg baseball toward the batter so that it crosses home plate horizontally and has a speed of 42 m/s just before it makes contact with the bat. The batter then hits the ball straight back at the pitcher with a speed of 48 m/s. Assum
> The front 1.20 m of a 1400-kg car is designed as a “crumple zone” that collapses to absorb the shock of a collision. If a car traveling 25.0 m/s stops uniformly in 1.20 m, (a) How long does the collision last, (b) What is the magnitude of the average for
> A 3.00-kg steel ball strikes a massive wall at 10.0 m/s at an angle of Î¸ = 60.0Â° with the plane of the wall. It bounces off the wall with the same speed and angle (Fig. P6.18). If the ball is in contact with the wall for 0.200 s,
> The forces shown in the force vs. time diagram in Figure P6.17 act on a 1.5 - kg particle. Find (a) The impulse for the interval from t = 0 to t = 3.0 s and (b) The impulse for the interval from t = 0 to t = 5.0 s. If the forces act on a 1.5 - kg particl
> A force of magnitude Fx acting in the x - direction on a 2.00 - kg particle varies in time as shown in Figure P6.16. Find (a) The impulse of the force, (b) The final velocity of the particle if it is initially at rest, and (c) The final velocity of the p
> A bowling ball is suspended from the ceiling of a lecture hall by a strong cord. The ball is drawn away from its equilibrium position and released from rest at the tip of the demonstratorâ€™s nose, as shown in Figure CQ5.6. (a) If the dem
> The force shown in the force vs. time diagram in Figure P6.15 acts on a 1.5-kg object. Find (a) The impulse of the force, (b) The final velocity of the object if it is initially at rest, and (c) The final velocity of the object if it is initially moving
> A 65.0-kg basketball player jumps vertically and leaves the floor with a velocity of 1.80 m/s upward. (a) What impulse does the player experience? (b) What force does the floor exert on the player before the jump? (c) What is the total average force exer
> A car is stopped for a traffic signal. When the light turns green, the car accelerates, increasing its speed from 0 to 5.20 m/s in 0.832 s. What are the magnitudes of (a) The linear impulse and (b) The average total force experienced by a 70.0-kg passeng
> A tennis player receives a shot with the ball (0.060 0 kg) traveling horizontally at 50.0 m/s and returns the shot with the ball traveling horizontally at 40.0 m/s in the opposite direction. (a) What is the impulse delivered to the ball by the racket? (b
> A ball of mass 0.150 kg is dropped from rest from a height of 1.25 m. It rebounds from the floor to reach a height of 0.960 m. What impulse was given to the ball by the floor?
> A man claims he can safely hold on to a 12.0-kg child in a head-on collision with a relative speed of 120-mi/h lasting for 0.10 s as long as he has his seat belt on. (a) Find the magnitude of the average force needed to hold onto the child. (b) Based on
> A soccer player takes a corner kick, lofting a stationary ball 35.0° above the horizon at 22.5 m/s. If the soccer ball has a mass of 0.425 kg and the player’s foot is in contact with it for 5.00 x 10-2 s, find (a) The x - and y - components of the soccer
> An estimated force vs. time curve for a baseball struck by a bat is shown in Figure P6.8. From this curve, determine (a) The impulse delivered to the ball and (b) The average force exerted on the ball. Figure P6.8:
> An object has a kinetic energy of 275 J and a momentum of magnitude 25.0 kg ? m/s. Find the (a) Speed and (b) Mass of the object.
> (a) If two automobiles collide, they usually do not stick together. Does this mean the collision is elastic? (b) Explain why a head-on collision is likely to be more dangerous than other types of collisions.
> Starting from rest, a 5.00 - kg block slides 2.50 m down a rough 30.0° incline. The coefficient of kinetic friction between the block and the incline is µk 5 0.436. Determine (a) The work done by the force of gravity, (b) The work done by the friction fo
> A skater is standing still on a frictionless ice rink. Her friend throws a Frisbee straight to her. In which of the following cases is the largest momentum transferred to the skater? (a) The skater catches the Frisbee and holds onto it. (b) The skater ca
> Two identical ice hockey pucks, labeled A and B, are sliding towards each other at speed Ï…. Which one of the following statements is true concerning their momenta and kinetic energies?
> If two objects collide and one is initially at rest, (a) Is it possible for both to be at rest after the collision? (b) Is it possible for only one to be at rest after the collision? Explain.
> Two particles of different mass start from rest. The same net force acts on both of them as they move over equal distances. How do their final kinetic energies compare? (a) The particle of larger mass has more kinetic energy. (b) The particle of smaller
> Does a larger net force always produce a larger change in kinetic energy than a smaller net force? Explain.
> An open box slides with constant speed across the frictionless surface of a frozen lake. If water from a rain shower falls vertically downward into it, does the box: (a) Speed up, (b) Slow down, or (c) Continue to move with constant speed?
> An air bag inflates when a collision occurs, protecting a passenger (the dummy in Figure CQ6.12) from serious injury. Why does the air bag soften the blow? Discuss the physics involved in this dramatic photograph. Figure CQ6.12:
> Two carts move in the same direction along a frictionless air track, each acted on by the same constant force for a time interval Δt. Cart 2 has twice the mass of cart 1. Which one of the following statements is true? (a) Each cart has the same change in
> Bob, of mass m, drops from a tree limb at the same time that Esther, also of mass m, begins her descent down a frictionless slide. If they both start at the same height above the ground, which of the following is true about their kinetic energies as they
> Three identical balls are thrown from the top of a building, all with the same initial speed. The first ball is thrown horizontally, the second at some angle above the horizontal, and the third at some angle below the horizontal, as in Figure 5.16. Negle
> A block slides at constant speed down a ramp while acted on by three forces: its weight, the normal force, and kinetic friction. Respond to each statement, true or false. (a) The combined net work done by all three forces on the block equals zero. (b) Ea
> In Figure 5.5 (a)â€“(d), a block moves to the right in the positive x - direction through the displacement Î”x( while under the influence of a force with the same magnitude F(. Which of the following is the correct order of the
> A book of mass m is projected with a speed υ across a horizontal surface. The book slides until it stops due to the friction force between the book and the surface. The surface is now tilted 30°, and the book is projected up the surface with the same ini
> Elastic potential energy depends on the spring constant and the distance the spring is stretched or compressed. By what factor does the elastic potential energy change if the spring’s stretch is (a) Doubled or (b) Tripled?
> True or False: The elastic potential energy of a stretched or compressed spring is always positive.
> Calculate the elastic potential energy of a spring with spring constant k = 225 N/m that is (a) Compressed and (b) Stretched by 1.00 x 10-2 m.
> In 1990 Walter Arfeuille of Belgium lifted a 281.5 - kg object through a distance of 17.1 cm using only his teeth. (a) How much work did Arfeuille do on the object? (b) What magnitude force did he exert on the object during the lift, assuming the force w
> When a 2.50 - kg object is hung vertically on a certain light spring described by Hooke’s law, the spring stretches 2.76 cm. (a) What is the force constant of the spring? (b) If the 2.50 - kg object is removed, how far will the spring stretch if a 1.25 -
> A man pushing a crate of mass m = 92.0 kg at a speed of Ï… = 0.850 m/s encounters a rough horizontal surface of length â„“ = 0.65 m as in Figure P5.18. If the coefficient of kinetic friction between the crate and rough surface i
> A 0.60 - kg particle has a speed of 2.0 m/s at point A and a kinetic energy of 7.5 J at point B. What is (a) Its kinetic energy at A? (b) Its speed at point B? (c) The total work done on the particle as it moves from A to B?
> A cable exerts a constant upward tension of magnitude 1.25 x 104 N on a 1.00 x 103-kg elevator as it rises through a vertical distance of 2.00 m. (a) Find the work done by the tension force on the elevator. (b) Find the work done by the force of gravity
> A car and a large truck traveling at the same speed collide head-on and stick together. Which vehicle undergoes the larger change in the magnitude of its momentum? (a) The car (b) The truck (c) The change in the magnitude of momentum is the same for both
> Do you think it is ethical for companies like Microsoft to continue to hold cash overseas in order to avoid paying U.S. corporate income taxes? Is this practice always in the best interests of the company’s shareholders?
> During the Chávez years, many foreign multinationals exited Venezuela or reduced their exposure there. What do you think the impact of this has been on Venezuela? What needs to be done to reverse the trend?
> Why does Microsoft continue to hold so much cash overseas, rather than returning it to the United States? What do you think are the opportunity costs of holding tens of billions of dollars in cash in foreign locations? What potential benefits might accru
> Microsoft’s effective tax rate on foreign earnings retained overseas appears to be only 4 percent. How is this possible given the corporate tax rate in most developed countries where Microsoft earns profits from foreign sales are considerably higher?
> What were the benefits to Microsoft’s shareholders of using cash held overseas to purchase Skype?
> With the arrival of Joe Kaeser, the focus is much more on apps and websites. How can these individual, customer-based IT features help industrial-based IT companies such as Siemens?
> Does the “power and accountability” initiative imply that Siemens will ignore national and regional differences?
> What strategy was Peter Löscher trying to get Siemens to pursue with his streamlined “power and accountability” initiative? What are the benefits of this strategy? Can you see any drawbacks?
> How would you characterize the strategy for competing internationally that Siemens was pursuing prior to the arrival of Peter Löscher? What were the benefits of this strategy? What were the costs? Why was Siemens pursuing this strategy?
> What lessons can we draw from the Domino’s case study that might be useful for other international businesses selling consumer goods?
> How does the marketing mix for Domino’s in Japan differ from that in the United States? How does the marketing mix in India differ?
> What do you think Domino’s does from an organizational perspective to make sure that it accommodates local differences in consumer tastes and preferences?
> During the latter part of Chávez’s rule, Venezuela benefited from high oil prices. Since 2014, however, oil prices have fallen substantially. What has the effect of this has been on government finances and the Venezuelan economy?
> Do you think it is wise for Domino’s to stick to its traditional “home delivery” business model, even when that is not the norm in a country and when its international rivals have changed their format?
> Apple’s global supply chains make its business thrive. There is secrecy among suppliers, superior quality standards by every party involved in Apple’s supply chains, and a total value focus that ultimately makes the customers happy. Is this a sustainable
> Apple products have usually been priced above their competition and sold for their value, intrigue, and market leadership. Some would say Samsung is catching up on many of these fronts and even, perhaps, passing Apple. Do you think Apple can charge a pri
> With the 2011 death of Steve Jobs, Apple’s legendary founder and CEO, what can we expect from Apple in the future? Will it be as innovative? Will it maintain brand value leadership? Will it run the top global supply chains in the world?
> According to Interbrand’s analysis, Apple’s brand is valued at more than $180 billion, while Google in second place is valued at $133 billion and Coca-Cola in third is at $73 billion (2016). Do you agree that Apple should be so far ahead of its nearest b
> Do you think franchising is a foreign market entry option for Lulu’s Dessert? Why or why not?
> Lulu’s Dessert used services of the U.S. Export-Import Bank to help with knowledge and market segmentation for her desserts as a part of exporting the company products. The Ex-Im Bank receives lots of positive and negative reviews in the United States; d
> Desserts are often localized in taste. Beyond the United States and Mexico, where do you think Lulu’s Dessert products would be favorably received by customers?
> As of 2018, GM appears to be increasing its strategic commitments to China by building more factories and opening more dealerships. Why is the company making these bets? Do you think it is doing the right thing?
> Why has the joint venture been so successful to date?
> How will the high level of public corruption in Venezuela affect future growth rates?
> Why did GM not simply license its technology to SAIC? Why did it not export cars from the United States?
> Why did GM enter through a joint venture with SAIC? What are the benefits of this approach? What are the potential risks?
> GM entered the Chinese market at a time when demand was very limited. Why? What was the strategic rationale?
> Philips reorganized multiple times, from 21 divisions to 9 divisions and subsequently just 3 divisions. Why do you think it did this? What is it trying to achieve? Can a company reorganize its structure this often and maintain competitiveness?
> What was the point of the organizational changes made by Cor Boonstra? What was he trying to achieve? Do you agree with Frans van Houten’s decision to keep the same three divisions when he became CEO?
> What was Philips trying to achieve by tilting the balance of power in its structure away from national organizations and toward the product divisions? Why was this hard to achieve?
> Why did Philips’ organizational structure make sense early on in its existence? Why did this structure start to create problems for the company later on?
> Car manufacturers are some of the most secretive companies in the world. Should more car competitors share building platforms to standardize their operations like other industries (e.g., music, electronics)? In this spirit, can Ford become more competiti
> What would you recommend that Ford undertakes in terms of continuing or possibly changing the global strategy that Mulally put in place? Clearly Fields’ long-term employment with Ford did not result in a benefit to making Ford globally competitive (Ford’
> How would you characterize the strategy for competing internationally that Ford was pursuing prior to the arrival of Alan Mulally? What are the benefits of the more standardized platform strategy? Can you see any drawbacks?
> How do you think that Chávez’s unilateral changes to contracts with foreign oil companies will affect future investment by foreigners in Venezuela?
> What actions do you think a multinational firm can take to limit the impact of future crises in the global financial system on the ability of the enterprise to raise capital to pay its short-term bills and fund long-term investments?
> Why do you think that global capital flows were still significantly below their 2007 peak seven years after the crisis hit? What are the implications of this for the ability of multinational firms to finance their investments by raising outside capital?
> How can the risk of occurrence of crises such as the 2007–2008 global financial crisis be mitigated in the future?
> In retrospect, were central banks justified in stepping in as aggressively as they did to shore up the global financial system? If they had not done so, and instead let more large financial institutions fail, what would have been the consequence?